Glossary

 

PRODUCTS

Market pulp is pulp that is sold.

Cartonboard is used to manufacture packaging for different types of goods, e.g. confectionery, cosmetics and food.

CTMP is chemo thermo mechanical pulp which is used in paperboard and contributes towards its rigidity.

FibreForm® is paper with high elasticity, which can be shaped to produce thermoformed and deep-drawn food and consumer packaging such as trays, blisterpacks, etc.

NSSC is a semi-chemical pulp used as the raw material for fluting.

Sulphate pulp is chemical pulp produced by cooking wood chips with the chemicals sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide. Sulphate pulp can be bleached with chlorine dioxide, oxygen or hydrogen peroxide.

Sack paper is paper with high strength properties for sack manufacture. Turpentine is extracted from the wood raw material as a by-product of the sulphate process and is used to make perfumes and in the paint industry.

Liquid packaging board is used to manufacture packaging for beverages and other liquid foods. Corrugated board is manufactured by gluing together two flat layers of paper – liner – with a rippled layer – fluting– in the middle.

FORESTRY

FSC® (Forest Stewardship Council) is an independent membership-based organisation that promotes environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable use of the world’s forests.

Pulpwood is primarily softwood (spruce and pine) and birch used to make paper. Wood volumes are usually given in the unit solid cubic metres under bark, m3 sub.

PEFCTM (Program For the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) is an international certification of sustainable forestry and forest raw material.

ENERGY AND CLIMATE

Waste liquor (black liquor) – a biofuel – is used cooking liquid from cooking chips to produce pulp. The liquor is burnt in the soda recovery boiler in which the wood solids released (lignin) provide the highest proportion of a pulp mill’s energy requirements. The chemicals in the liquor are also recovered in the process.

Tar oil is a by-product in refining tall oil, and is a biofuel.

Biofuels are renewable fuels originating from the plant kingdom.

Carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gases that a product causes in the whole chain “from cradle to grave”.

Fossil fuels are fuel oil, LPG and natural gas. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes towards the greenhouse effect.

Climate change is caused by the growing greenhouse effect, resulting in global warming, new weather patterns and melting polar ice.

Tall oil is a bio-oil originating from the resins in the wood. The resins form a soap in the sulphate process which is separated out using an acid to form tall oil. It is sold as a product for further processing into chemicals and fuel additives, etc. and can also be used directly as fuel.

Greenhouse gases usually refer to carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion of fossil fuels.

EMISSIONS

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to break down organic material in our processes. Often analysed as TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and recalculated using a conversion factor.

Nitrogen oxides NOx are formed during combustion in steam boilers and, like sulphur dioxide, can lead to acidification. Cleaning equipment and optimising combustion result in lower air emissions.

Nutrient salts (phosphorus and nitrogen) Emissions of nutrient salts can lead to eutrophication. Which it is most important to check varies depending on supply. The nutrient salt in shortest supply is called growth-limiting.

Dust consists of small particles formed during combustion, arising in Billerud- Korsnäs’ operations from soda recovery boilers, bark boilers and lime kilns. High quantities of fine particulate dust are harmful to health and in the event of operational problems can cause dirt in the neighbouring area. Scrubbers and electrofilters are examples of how we ensure that emissions remain at a low level

Reduced sulphur compounds are formed when manufacturing sulphate pulp and consist of hydrogen sulphide and other malodorous sulphur compounds, mainly methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide. These do not impact on the surrounding environment, but may cause odour problems for local residents.

Total suspended solids are suspended particles in our process discharges.

Sulphur dioxide is converted to sulphuric acid in contact with damp air and falls as acid precipitation. In our sulphate processes, sulphur is included as a cooking chemical and we therefore emit sulphur to air.

WASTE AND RESIDUES

Bark ash can be used to fertilise forest land rather than being sent to landfill as waste, and can also be used as a covering material when landfill sites are closed. The ash can also be composted together with fibre sludge.

Fibre sludge is organic material and therefore may not be sent to landfill. It can be dewatered and incinerated in the bark boiler or composted. Trials are also in progress to produce biogas.

Green liquor sludge has to be removed from the process due to its content of metals which can leave residues in pumps, heat exchangers and other equipment. Metals enter the process via the wood raw material. Green liquor sludge also contains a large proportion of lime sludge (calcium carbonate) which has been added in order to be able to filter and wash the sludge which is otherwise hard to dewater. This waste fraction is normally sent to landfill. Research is in progress and attempts have been made to use sludge to cover mines.

Lime sludge is used calcium, calcium carbonate, which is normally burned in a lime kiln to produce active lime, but which must be removed from the process in the event of disruption, etc. Lime sludge is normally not sent to landfill and can be recycled or used for other purposes. It can be sent to be burned into lime in an external kiln, used as a filler when building roads and is spread on agricultural land to adjust the pH.